If we put in simple words diabetes is a group of metabolic disorders, currently incurable condition in which too much sugar is present in the blood. To understand what happens, let’s first look into details of basic metabolic activity.
When we eat food, it gets broken down in intestine into Simple sugar and then absorbed in the blood stream to get distributed. Since we don’t eat continuously our Body has system to regulate the blood sugar to a constant level. So right after the meal when blood sugar level is high, the body stores the excess glucose in the lever in the form of Glycogen. And when blood sugar level is down, body metabolize the glycogen and releases glucose in the blood. Let’s see the whole process in detail. The key role in the whole process is played by two hormones. Insulin and Glucagon.
Right after meal, the food gets converted into glucose and hence the blood sugar level rises. In response to this rise insulin is released by beta cells of pancreas. It causes the excess glucose to get stored into lever and muscles as glycogen or as fat in adipose tissues.
Now when the blood sugar drops too low, another hormone named glucagon come into action. It has the opposite action of that Of Insulin. It stimulates liver to release the stored glucose. This way both this hormones act in balance and keep the blood sugar at constant concentration.
In diabetes this balance gets tilted and body does not respond to the rise in blood sugar. The reason may be absence of insulin or body cannot utilize the present insulin. As a result the excess glucose overflows in urine and passes Out of the body. Now the body has lost its main energy source, the person with diabetes always feels drained and exhausted in spite of having large amount of sugar in blood.
Such condition can occur while,
1. When pancreas produces very lil insulin or does not able to produce insulin at all, the condition is known as type -I or juvenile diabetes. Sometimes – for unknown reasons our own immune system attacks on the beta cells of pancreas and Kills them and the result is diabetes -1.
2. When the insulin is present still the body cannot utilize it and not able to manage the excess glucose, this is known as insulin resistance. The condition is type II or diabetes mellitus. If ignored or not diagnosed properly, can lead to obesity, heart disease and many other dangerous conditions.
Symptoms of Diabetes:
Regardless of the type of diabetes, diabetics exhibit several (but not necessarily all) of the following symptoms:
• Excessive thirst
• Frequent urination
• Extreme hunger or constant eating
• Unexplained weight loss
• Presence of glucose in the urine
• Tiredness or fatigue
• Changes in vision
• Numbness or tingling in the extremities (hands, feet)
• Slow-healing wounds or sores
• Abnormally high frequency of infection
So be proactive and get your sugar checkups regularly post the age of 40.